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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 26 Sep 2019

Submitted as: research article | 26 Sep 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

Observation of sensible and latent heat flux profiles with lidar

Andreas Behrendt1, Volker Wulfmeyer1, Christoph Senff2,3, Shravan Kumar Muppa1,4, Florian Späth1, Diego Lange1, Norbert Kalthoff5, and Andreas Wieser5 Andreas Behrendt et al.
  • 1Institute of Physics and Meteorology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
  • 2Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, USA
  • 3NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory/Chemical Sciences Division, Boulder, CO, USA
  • 4now with University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
  • 5Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany

Abstract. We present the first measurement of the sensible heat flux (H) profile in the convective boundary layer (CBL) derived from the covariance of collocated vertical-pointing temperature rotational Raman lidar and Doppler wind lidar measurements. The uncertainties of the H measurements due to instrumental noise and limited sampling are also derived and discussed. Simultaneous measurements of the latent heat flux profile (L) and other turbulent variables were obtained with the combination of water-vapor DIAL and Doppler lidar. The measurement example is from the HOPE campaign, which took place in western Germany in 2013 and presents a cloud-free well-developed quasi-stationary CBL. The mean boundary layer height z_i was at 1230 m above ground level. The results show – as expected – positive values of H in the middle of the CBL. A maximum of (182 ± 32) W/m2, with the second number for the noise uncertainty, is found at 0.5 z_i. At about 0.7 z_i, H changes sign to negative values above. The entrainment flux was (−62 ± 27) W/m2. The mean sensible heat flux divergence in the observed part of the CBL above 0.3 z_i was −0.28 W/m3, which corresponds to a warming of 0.83 K/h. The L profile shows a slight positive mean flux divergence of 0.12 W/m3 and an entrainment flux of (214 ± 36) W/m2. The combination of H and L profiles in combination with variance and other turbulent parameters is very valuable for the evaluation of large-eddy simulation (LES) results and the further improvement and validation of turbulence parameterization schemes.

Andreas Behrendt et al.
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Andreas Behrendt et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
In order to understand how solar radiation energy hitting the ground is distributed into the atmosphere, we use a new combination of laser-based remote sensing techniques to quantify these energy fluxes up to heights of more than 1 km above ground. Before, similar techniques have already been presented for determining the energy flux component regarding the exchange of humidity but not the warm air itself. Now, we show that also this can be measured by remote sensing with low uncertainties.
In order to understand how solar radiation energy hitting the ground is distributed into the...