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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-243
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-243
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 14 Jun 2019

Research article | 14 Jun 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

A scientific algorithm to simultaneously retrieve carbon monoxide and methane from TROPOMI onboard Sentinel-5 Precursor

Oliver Schneising1, Michael Buchwitz1, Maximilian Reuter1, Heinrich Bovensmann1, John P. Burrows1, Tobias Borsdorff2, Nicholas M. Deutscher3, Dietrich G. Feist4,5, David W. T. Griffith3, Frank Hase6, Christian Hermans7, Laura T. Iraci8, Rigel Kivi9, Jochen Landgraf2, Isamu Morino10, Justus Notholt1, Christof Petri1, David F. Pollard11, Sébastien Roche12, Kei Shiomi13, Kimberly Strong12, Ralf Sussmann14, Voltaire A. Velazco3, Thorsten Warneke1, and Debra Wunch12 Oliver Schneising et al.
  • 1Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen FB1, Bremen, Germany
  • 2SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Earth Science Group (ESG), Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 3Centre for Atmospheric Chemistry, School of Earth, Atmosphere and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
  • 4Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 5Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany
  • 6Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-ASF), Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 7Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Brussels, Belgium
  • 8Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA
  • 9Finnish Meteorological Institute, Space and Earth Observation Centre, Sodankylä, Finland
  • 10Satellite Remote Sensing Section and Satellite Observation Center, Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan
  • 11National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Lauder, New Zealand
  • 12Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
  • 13Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba, Japan
  • 14Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Abstract. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important atmospheric constituent affecting air quality and methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to human-induced climate change. Detailed and continuous observations of these gases are necessary to better assess their impact on climate and atmospheric pollution. While surface and airborne measurements are able to accurately determine atmospheric abundances on local scales, global coverage can only be achieved using satellite instruments.

The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which was successfully launched in October 2017, is a spaceborne nadir viewing imaging spectrometer measuring solar radiation reflected by the Earth in a push-broom configuration. It has a wide swath on the terrestrial surface and covers wavelength bands between the ultraviolet (UV) and the shortwave infrared (SWIR) combining a high spatial resolution with daily global coverage. These characteristics enable the determination of both gases with unprecedented level of detail on a global scale introducing new areas of application.

Abundances of the atmospheric column-averaged dry air mole fractions XCO and XCH4 are simultaneously retrieved from TROPOMI's radiance measurements in the 2.3 μm spectral range of the SWIR part of the solar spectrum using the scientific retrieval algorithm Weighting Function Modified DOAS (WFM-DOAS). We introduce the algorithm in detail, including expected error characteristics based on synthetic data, a machine learning-based quality filter and a shallow learning calibration procedure applied in the post-processing of the XCH4 data. The quality of the results based on real TROPOMI data is assessed by validation with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data: The XCO data set is characterised by a random error of 5.1 ppb (5.7 %) and a systematic error of 1.9 ppb (2.1 %); the XCH4 data set exhibits a random error of 14.0 ppb (0.8 %) and a systematic error of 4.4 ppb (0.2 %). The natural XCO and XCH4 variations are well captured by the satellite retrievals, which is demonstrated by a high correlation to the reference data (R = 0.97 for XCO and R = 0.91 for XCH4 based on daily averages).

We also present selected results from mission start until end of 2018, including a first comparison to the operational products and examples of the detection of emission sources in a single satellite overpass, such as CO emissions from the steel industry and CH4 emissions from the energy sector.

Oliver Schneising et al.
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Short summary
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important atmospheric constituents carbon monoxide and methane from the TROPOMI instrument onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite, which enables the determination of both gases with unprecedented level of detail on a global scale. The quality of the resulting data sets is assessed and first results are presented.
We introduce an algorithm that is used to simultaneously derive the abundances of the important...
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