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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-238
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-238
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 13 Aug 2019

Submitted as: research article | 13 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

Aerosol measurement methods to quantify spore emissions from fungi and cryptogamic covers in the Amazon

Nina Löbs1, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa1, Sebastian Brill1, David Walter1, Florian Ditas1, Marta de Oliveira Sá2, Alessandro C. de Araújo3, Leonardo R. de Oliveira2, Ricardo H. M. Godoi4, Stefan Wolff1, Meike Piepenbring5, Jürgen Kesselmeier1, Paulo Artaxo6, Meinrat O. Andreae1,7, Ulrich Pöschl1, Christopher Pöhlker1, and Bettina Weber1,8 Nina Löbs et al.
  • 1Multiphase Chemistry and Biogeochemistry Departments, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, 55128, Germany
  • 2Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus-AM, CEP 69067-375, Brazil
  • 3Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA), Belém-PA, CEP 66095-100, Brazil
  • 4Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraná UFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
  • 5Department of Mycology, Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt, 60438, Germany
  • 6Institute of physics, University of São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
  • 7Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, US
  • 8Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Holteigasse 6, 8010 Graz, Austria

Abstract. Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties and spatio-temporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. In the Amazon Basin, primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) account for a large fraction of coarse particulate matter, and fungal spores are among the most abundant PBAP there as well as in other vegetated continental regions. Furthermore, PBAP could also be important ice nuclei in Amazonia. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions are, however, sparse. Here we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions. For measurements under natural conditions, the samples were kept in their natural environment and a setup was developed to estimate the spore release numbers and sizes together with the microclimatic factors temperature and air humidity, as well as the mesoclimatic parameters, net radiation, rain, and fog occurrence. For experiments in the laboratory, we developed a cuvette to assess the particle size and number of newly released fungal spores under controlled conditions, simultaneously measuring temperature and relative humidity inside the cuvette. Both approaches were combined with bioaerosol sampling techniques to characterize the released particles by microscopic methods. For fruiting bodies of the basidiomycetous species, Rigidoporus microporus, the model species for which these techniques were tested, the highest frequency of spore release occurred in the range of 62 and 96 % relative humidity. The results obtained for this model species reveal characteristic spore release patterns linked to environmental or experimental conditions, indicating that the moisture status of the sample may be a regulating factor, while temperature and light seem to play a minor role, at least for this species. The presented approach enables systematic studies aimed at the quantification and validation of spore emission rates and inventories, which can be applied to a regional mapping of cryptogamic organisms under given environmental conditions.

Nina Löbs et al.
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Short summary
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources, properties and spatio-temporal distribution in the atmosphere are not yet well characterized. Measurement data on the release of fungal spores under natural conditions, are sparse. Here we present an experimental approach to analyze and quantify the spore release from fungi and other spore producing organisms under natural and laboratory conditions.
Bioaerosols are considered to play a relevant role in atmospheric processes, but their sources,...
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