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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 06 Aug 2019

Submitted as: research article | 06 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

Potential for the measurement of MLT wind, temperature, density and geomagnetic field with Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder-2 (SMILES-2)

Philippe Baron1, Satoshi Ochiai1, Eric Dupuy2, Richard Larsson3, Huixin Liu4, Naohiro Manago5, Donal Murtagh6, S. Oyama7,8,9, Hideo Sagawa10, Akinori Saito11, Takatoshi Sakazaki11, Masato Shiotani11, and Makoto Suzuki12 Philippe Baron et al.
  • 1National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Japan
  • 2National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan
  • 3Max Planck Institute, Göttingen, Germany
  • 4Kyushu University, Kyushu, Japan
  • 5Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
  • 6Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
  • 7Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
  • 8National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Japan
  • 9University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
  • 10Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan
  • 11Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
  • 12Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Japan

Abstract. Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder-2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan to probe the middle and upper-atmosphere (20–160 km). The main instrument is composed of 4-K cooled radiometers operating near 0.7 and 2 THz. It could measure the diurnal changes of the horizontal wind above 30 km, temperature above 20 km, ground-state atomic oxygen above 90 km, atmospheric density near the mesopause, as well as abundance of about 15 chemical species. In this study we have conducted simulations to assess the wind, temperature and density retrieval performance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60–110 km) using the radiometer at 760 GHz. It contains lines of water vapor (H2O), molecular oxygen (O2) and nitric oxide (NO) that are the strongest signals measured with SMILES-2 at these altitudes. The Zeeman effect on the O2 line due to the geomagnetic field (B) is considered, otherwise, the retrieval errors would be underestimated by a factor of 2 above 90 km. The optimal configuration for the radiometer’s polarization is found to be vertical linear. The line-of-sight wind is retrieved with a precision of 2–5 m/s up to 90 km (30 m/s at 110 km) and a vertical resolution of 2.5 km. Temperature and atmospheric density are retrieved with a precision better than 5 K (30 K) and 7 % (20 %) up to 90 km (110 km), respectively. Errors induced by uncertainties on the vector B are mitigated by retrieving it. The retrieval of B is described as a side-product of the mission. At high-latitudes, precisions of 30–100 nT on the vertical component and 100–300 nT on the horizontal one could be obtained at 85 and 105 km (vertical resolution of 20 km). SMILES-2 could therefore provide the first measurements of B close to the electrojets' altitude, and the precision is enough to measure variations induced by solar storms in the auroral regions.

Philippe Baron et al.
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Philippe Baron et al.
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Short summary
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder-2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan to probe the middle and upper-atmosphere (20–160 km). The key products are wind and temperature. If selected, this mission could provide new insights on vertical coupling in the atmosphere, and could help to improve weather and climate models. We conducted simulation studies to assess the measurement performances in the altitude range 70–110 km, with a special focus on geomagnetic field effects.
Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder-2 (SMILES-2) is a satellite mission proposed in Japan...