Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 3.400 IF 3.400
  • IF 5-year value: 3.841 IF 5-year
    3.841
  • CiteScore value: 3.71 CiteScore
    3.71
  • SNIP value: 1.472 SNIP 1.472
  • IPP value: 3.57 IPP 3.57
  • SJR value: 1.770 SJR 1.770
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 70 Scimago H
    index 70
  • h5-index value: 49 h5-index 49
Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-117
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2019-117
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 07 May 2019

Submitted as: research article | 07 May 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) and is expected to appear here in due course.

Evaluation of ARM Tethered Balloon System instrumentation for supercooled liquid water and distributed temperature sensing in mixed-phase Arctic clouds

Darielle Dexheimer1, Martin Airey2, Erika Roesler1, Casey Longbottom1, Keri Nicoll2,5, Stefan Kneifel3, Fan Mei4, R. Giles Harrison2, Graeme Marlton2, and Paul D. Williams2 Darielle Dexheimer et al.
  • 1Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
  • 2University of Reading, Dept. of Meteorology, Reading, UK
  • 3University of Cologne, Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology, Cologne, Germany
  • 4Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA
  • 5University of Bath, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Bath, UK

Abstract. A tethered balloon system (TBS) has been developed and is being operated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) User Facility in order to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. Periodic tethered balloon flights have been conducted since 2015 within restricted airspace at ARM’s Advanced Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) in Oliktok Point, Alaska, as part of the AALCO (Aerial Assessment of Liquid in Clouds at Oliktok), ERASMUS (Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems), and POPEYE (Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance YOPP Experiments) field campaigns. The tethered balloon system uses helium-filled 34 m3 helikites and 79 and 104 m3 aerostats to suspend instrumentation that is used to measure aerosol particle size distributions, temperature, horizontal wind, pressure, relative humidity, turbulence, and cloud particle properties and to calibrate ground-based remote sensing instruments.

Supercooled liquid water content (SLWC) sondes using the vibrating wire principle, developed by Anasphere Inc., were operated at Oliktok Point at multiple altitudes on the TBS within mixed-phase clouds for over 200 hours Sonde-collected SLWC data were compared with liquid water content derived from a microwave radiometer, Ka-band ARM Zenith radar, and ceilometer at the AMF3, as well as liquid water content derived from AMF3 radiosonde flights. The in situ data collected by the Anasphere sensors were also compared with data collected simultaneously by an alternative SLWC sensor developed at the University of Reading, UK; both vibrating wire instruments were typically observed to shed their ice quickly upon exiting the cloud or reaching maximum ice loading. Tethered balloon fiber optic distributed temperature sensing measurements were also compared with AMF3 radiosonde temperature measurements. Combined, the results indicate that TBS distributed temperature sensing and supercooled liquid water measurements are in reasonably good agreement with remote-sensing and radiosonde-based measurements of both properties. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform and constrain numerical models, calibrate and validate remote sensing instruments, and characterize the flight environment of unmanned aircraft, circumventing the difficulties of in-cloud unmanned aircraft flights such as limited flight time and in-flight icing.

Darielle Dexheimer et al.
Interactive discussion
Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Interactive discussion
Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement
Darielle Dexheimer et al.
Darielle Dexheimer et al.
Viewed  
Total article views: 593 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
495 95 3 593 3 1
  • HTML: 495
  • PDF: 95
  • XML: 3
  • Total: 593
  • BibTeX: 3
  • EndNote: 1
Views and downloads (calculated since 07 May 2019)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 07 May 2019)
Viewed (geographical distribution)  
Total article views: 471 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 465 with geography defined and 6 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Cited  
Saved  
No saved metrics found.
Discussed  
No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 13 Nov 2019
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
A tethered balloon system deployed supercooled liquid water content sondes and fiber optic distributed temperature sensing to collect in situ atmospheric measurements within mixed-phase Arctic clouds. These data were validated against collocated surface-based and remote sensing datasets. From these measurements and sensor evaluations, tethered balloon flights are shown to offer an effective method of collecting data to inform numerical models and calibrate remote sensing instrumentation.
A tethered balloon system deployed supercooled liquid water content sondes and fiber optic...
Citation