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https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-56
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
03 Apr 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).
NO2 and HCHO measurements in Korea from 2012 to 2016 from Pandora Spectrometer Instruments compared with OMI retrievals and with aircraft measurements during the KORUS-AQ campaign
Jay Herman1, Elena Spinei2, Alan Fried3, Jhoon Kim4, Jae Kim5, Woogyung Kim3, Alexander Cede6, Nader Abuhassan1, and Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer7,8 1University of Maryland Baltimore County JCET
2Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
3Institute of Arctic & Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA
4Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
5Department of Atmospheric Science, Pusan University, Busan, Korea
6Goddard Earth Sciences Technology & Research (GESTAR) Columbia, Columbia, MD 21046, USA
7Earth Science Division, NASA Ames, Mountain View, California, USA
8Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, Petaluma, California, USA
Abstract. Nine Pandora Spectrometer Instruments (PSI) were installed at 8 sites in South Korea as part of the KORUS-AQ (Korea U.S.-Air Quality) field study integrating information from ground, aircraft, and satellite measurements for air-quality studies. The PSI made direct-sun measurements of total vertical column NO2, C(NO2), with high precision (0.05 DU, where 1 DU = 2.69 × 1016 molecules/cm2) and accuracy (0.1 DU) that were retrieved using spectral fitting techniques. Retrieval of Formaldehyde (HCHO) total column amounts were also obtained at five sites using the recently improved PSI. The retrievals have with high precision, but possibly lower accuracy than for NO2 because of uncertainty about the optimum spectral window for all ground-based and satellite instruments. PSI direct-sun retrieved values of C(NO2) and C(HCHO) are always significantly larger than OMI retrieved C(NO2) and C(HCHO) for the OMI overpass times (13.5 ± 0.5 hours). In urban areas, PSI C(NO2) averages are at least a factor of two larger than OMI averages. Similar differences are seen for C(HCHO) in Seoul and nearby surrounding areas. Late afternoon values of C(HCHO) measured by PSI are even larger, implying that OMI early afternoon measurements underestimate the effect of poor air quality on human health. The primary cause of the OMI underestimate is the large OMI field of view FOV that includes regions containing low values of pollutants. In relatively clean areas, PSI and OMI are more closely in agreement. C(HCHO) amounts were obtained for five sites, Yonsei University in Seoul, Olympic Park, Taehwa Mtn., Amnyeondo, and Yeoju. Of these the largest amounts of C(HCHO) were observed at Olympic Park and Taehwa Mountain, surrounded by significant amounts of vegetation. Comparisons of PSI C(HCHO) results were made with the Compact Atmospheric Multispecies Spectrometer CAMS during overflights on the DC-8 aircraft for Taehwa Mtn and Olympic Park. In all cases, PSI measured substantially more C(HCHO) than obtained from integrating the CAMS altitude profiles. PSI C(HCHO) at Yonsei University in Seoul frequently reached 0.6 DU and occasionally exceeded 1.5 DU. The semi-rural site, Mt. Taehwa, frequently reached 0.9 DU and occasionally exceeded 1.5 DU. Even at the cleanest site, Amnyeondo, HCHO occasionally exceeded 1 DU.
Citation: Herman, J., Spinei, E., Fried, A., Kim, J., Kim, J., Kim, W., Cede, A., Abuhassan, N., and Segal-Rozenhaimer, M.: NO2 and HCHO measurements in Korea from 2012 to 2016 from Pandora Spectrometer Instruments compared with OMI retrievals and with aircraft measurements during the KORUS-AQ campaign, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2018-56, in review, 2018.
Jay Herman et al.
Jay Herman et al.
Jay Herman et al.

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Short summary
Nine Pandora Spectrometer Instruments were installed at 8 sites for KORUS-AQ (Korea U.S.-Air Quality) field study from ground, aircraft, and satellite measurements. The quantities retrieved were total column measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde. We show the distribution of air pollutants vs location and time of day and comparisons with aircraft and satellite data. For some of the sites, long-term time series are available to asses changes.
Nine Pandora Spectrometer Instruments were installed at 8 sites for KORUS-AQ (Korea U.S.-Air...
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