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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 07 Jan 2019

Research article | 07 Jan 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).

A robust automated technique for operational calibration of ceilometers using the integrated backscatter from totally attenuating liquid clouds

Emma Hopkin1, Anthony J. Illingworth1, Cristina Charlton-Perez2, Chris D. Westbrook1, and Sue Ballard2,† Emma Hopkin et al.
  • 1Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK
  • 2Met Office, MetOffice@Reading, Reading, UK
  • deceased, 12 July 2018

Abstract. A simple and robust method for calibrating ceilometers has been tested in an operational environment demonstrating that the calibrations are stable to better than ± 5 % over a period of a year. The method relies on using the integrated backscatter (B) from liquid clouds that totally extinguish the ceilometer signal; B is inversely proportional to the lidar ratio (S) of the backscatter to the extinction for cloud droplets. The calibration technique involves scaling the observed backscatter so that B matches the predicted value for S of 18.8 ± 0.8 sr for cloud droplets, at ceilometer wavelengths. For accurate calibration, care must be taken to exclude any profiles having targets with different values of S, such as drizzle drops and aerosol particles, profiles that do not totally extinguish the ceilometer signal, profiles with low cloud bases that saturate the receiver, and any profiles where the window transmission or the lidar pulse energy is low. A range dependent multiple scattering correction that depends on the ceilometer optics should be applied to the profile. A simple correction for water vapour attenuation for ceilometers operating at around 910 nm wavelength is applied to the signal using the vapour profiles from a forecast analysis. For a generic ceilometer in the UK the 90-day running mean of the calibration coefficient over a period of 20 months is constant to within 3 % with no detectable annual cycle, thus confirming the validity of the humidity and multiple scattering correction. For Gibraltar, where cloud cover is less prevalent than in the UK, the 90-day running mean calibration coefficient was constant to within 4 %. The more sensitive ceilometer model operating at 1064 nm is unaffected by water vapour attenuation but is more prone to saturation in liquid clouds. We show that reliable calibration is still possible, provided the clouds used are above a certain altitude. The threshold is instrument dependent but is typically around 2 km. We also identify a characteristic signature of saturation, and remove any profiles with this signature. Despite the more restricted sample of cloud profiles, a robust calibration is readily achieved, and, in the UK, the running mean 90-day calibration coefficients varied by about 4 % over a period of one year. The consistency of profiles observed by nine pairs of co-located ceilometers in the UK Met Office network operating at around 910 nm and 1064 nm provided independent validation of the calibration technique. EUMETNET is currently networking 700 European ceilometers so they can provide ceilometer profiles in near real time to European weather forecast centres and has adopted the cloud calibration technique described in this paper for ceilometers with a wavelength of around 910 nm.

Emma Hopkin et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
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Emma Hopkin et al.
Emma Hopkin et al.
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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Ceilometers are laser cloud base recorders which retrieve information about atmospheric aerosol and differing cloud types. In order to ensure the information retrieved from the ceilometer is correct and comparable with other ceilometers in an observation network, a calibration is needed. Presented here is a novel automated calibration method, that includes a correction for the affects of water vapour in the atmosphere, and shows its application on the UK Met Office's ceilometer network.
Ceilometers are laser cloud base recorders which retrieve information about atmospheric aerosol...