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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
23 Mar 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Estimating trends in atmospheric water vapor and temperature time series over Germany
Fadwa Alshawaf1, Kyriakos Balidakis2, Galina Dick1, Stefan Heise1, and Jens Wickert1,2 1German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
2Technische Universität Berlin, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Abstract. Ground-based GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have efficiently been used since the 1990s as a meteorological observing system. Recently scientists used GNSS time series of precipitable water vapor (PWV) for climate research. In this work, we compare the temporal trends estimated from GNSS time series with those estimated from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data and meteorological measurements. We aim at evaluating climate evolution in Germany by monitoring different atmospheric variables such as temperature and PWV. PWV time series were obtained by three methods: 1) estimated from ground-based GNSS observations using the method of precise point positioning, 2) inferred from ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and 3) determined based on daily in situ measurements of temperature and relative humidity. The other relevant atmospheric parameters are available from surface measurements of meteorological stations or derived from ERA-Interim. The trends are estimated using two methods, the first applies least squares to seasonally-adjusted time series and the second using the Theil-Sen estimator. The trends estimated at 113 GNSS sites, with 10 and 19 year temporal coverage, varies between −1.5 and 2 mm/decade with standard deviations below 0.25 mm/decade. These values depend on the length and the variations of the time series. Therefore, we estimated the PWV trends using ERA-Interim and surface measurements spanning from 1991 to 2016 (26 years) at synoptic 227 stations over Germany. The former shows positive PWV trends below 0.5 mm/decade while the latter shows positive trends below 0.9 mm/decade with standard deviations below 0.03 mm/decade. The estimated PWV trends correlate with the temperature trends.

Citation: Alshawaf, F., Balidakis, K., Dick, G., Heise, S., and Wickert, J.: Estimating trends in atmospheric water vapor and temperature time series over Germany, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Fadwa Alshawaf et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
RC1: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #1, 13 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Authors' Response', Fadwa Alshawaf, 21 Jul 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
RC2: 'Review of Alshawaf et al, amt-2017-69', Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Jul 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Authors' Response', Fadwa Alshawaf, 21 Jul 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Fadwa Alshawaf et al.
Fadwa Alshawaf et al.


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