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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2017-437
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
09 Jan 2018
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).
A highly miniaturized satellite payload based on a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric temperature measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere
Martin Kaufmann1,2, Friedhelm Olschewski2, Klaus Mantel3, Brian Solheim4, Gordon Shepherd4, Michael Deiml1,2,a, Jilin Liu1,2, Rui Song1,2, Qiuyu Chen2, Oliver Wroblowski1,2, Daikang Wei1,2, Yajun Zhu1, Friedrich Wagner8, Florian Loosen3,8, Denis Froehlich5, Tom Neubert5, Heinz Rongen5, Peter Knieling2, Panos Toumpas2, Jinjun Shan6, Geshi Tang7, Ralf Koppmann2, and Martin Riese1 1Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7), Research Center Juelich, Juelich, Germany
2Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Research, University of Wuppertal, Germany
3Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Erlangen, Germany
4Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
5Central Institute for Engineering, Electronics and Analytics, Electronic Systems (ZEA-2), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany
6Department of Earth and Space Science and Engineering, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
7Aerospace Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Beijing, China
8Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany
anow at: OHB System AG, Bremen, Germany
Abstract. A highly miniaturized limb sounder for the observation of the O2 A-Band to derive temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is presented. The instrument consists of a monolithic spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS), which is able to resolve the rotational structure of the R-branch of that band. The relative intensities of the emission lines follow a Boltzmann distribution and the ratio of the lines can be used to derive the kinetic temperature. The SHS operates at a Littrow wavelength of 761.8 nm and heterodynes a wavelength regime between 761.9 nm and 765.3 nm with a resolving power of about 8000 considering apodization effects. The size of the SHS is 38 × 38 × 27 mm3 and its acceptance angle is ±5°. It has an etendue of 0.014 cm2 sr. Complemented by a front optics with a solid angle of 0.65° and a detector optics, the entire optical system fits into a volume of about 1.5 liters. This allows to fly this instrument on a 3 or 6 unit CubeSat. The vertical field of view of the instrument is about 60 km at the Earth's limb if operated in a typical low Earth orbit. Integration times to obtain an entire altitude profile of nighttime temperatures are in the order of one minute for a vertical resolution of 1.5 km and a random noise level of 1.5 K. Daytime integration times are one order of magnitude shorter. This work presents the design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument. Furthermore it gives an overview of the required characterization and calibration steps. This includes the characterization of image distortions in the different parts of the optics, flat fielding and the spectral power estimation.

Citation: Kaufmann, M., Olschewski, F., Mantel, K., Solheim, B., Shepherd, G., Deiml, M., Liu, J., Song, R., Chen, Q., Wroblowski, O., Wei, D., Zhu, Y., Wagner, F., Loosen, F., Froehlich, D., Neubert, T., Rongen, H., Knieling, P., Toumpas, P., Shan, J., Tang, G., Koppmann, R., and Riese, M.: A highly miniaturized satellite payload based on a spatial heterodyne spectrometer for atmospheric temperature measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2017-437, in review, 2018.
Martin Kaufmann et al.
Martin Kaufmann et al.
Martin Kaufmann et al.

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Short summary
The concept and optical layout of a spectrometer particularly suited for the detection of faint emission lines is presented, which fits onto a nano-satellite platform, such as a CubeSat. It is designed for the derivation of temperatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The design parameters of the optics and a radiometric assessment of the instrument as well as the characterization and calibration steps are discussed.
The concept and optical layout of a spectrometer particularly suited for the detection of faint...
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