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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2017-366
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
23 Nov 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).
Mapping and quantifying isomer sets of hydrocarbons (≥ C12) in diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust samples using GC × GC-ToFMS
Mohammed S. Alam1, Zhirong Liang2, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei3, Christopher Stark1, Hongming Xu3, A. Rob MacKenzie1,a, and Roy M. Harrison1,b 1Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
2School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University Beijing, 100191 China
3School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
aalso at: Birmingham Institute of Forest Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
balso at: Department of Environmental Sciences/Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
Abstract. Many environmental samples, including water, soils, sediments and airborne particles and vapours contain complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, often deriving from crude oil either before or after fractionation into fuels, lubricants and feedstocks. Comprehensive 2D Gas Chromatography- Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS), offers a very powerful technique separating and identifying many compounds in complicated hydrocarbon mixtures. However, quantification and identification of individual constituents at high ionization energies would require hundreds of expensive (if available) standards for calibration. Although the chemical structure of hydrocarbons does matter for their environmental impact and fate, strong similarities can be expected for compounds having very similar chemical structure and carbon number. There is, therefore, a clear benefit in an analytical technique which is specific enough to separate different classes of compounds, and to distinguish homologous series, whilst avoiding the need to handle each isomer individually. Varying EI (electron impact) ionization mass spectrometry significantly enhances the identification of individual isomers and homologous compound groups, which we refer to as isomer sets. Advances are reported in mapping and quantifying isomer sets of hydrocarbons (≥ C12) in diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions. Using this analysis we report mass closures of ca. 90 % and 75 % for diesel fuel and lubricating oil.

Citation: Alam, M. S., Liang, Z., Zeraati-Rezaei, S., Stark, C., Xu, H., MacKenzie, A. R., and Harrison, R. M.: Mapping and quantifying isomer sets of hydrocarbons (≥ C12) in diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust samples using GC × GC-ToFMS, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-2017-366, in review, 2017.
Mohammed S. Alam et al.
Mohammed S. Alam et al.
Mohammed S. Alam et al.

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Short summary
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of chemical compounds with diverse molecular structures. The GC × GC-ToFMS analytical method is a very powerful way of separating and identifying those compounds. This paper describes an approach to allocating compounds into groups with similar molecular structures and chemical properties, which facilitates the intercomparison of very complex mixtures such as are found in diesel fuel, oil and emissions.
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of...
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