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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
06 Dec 2016
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT). The revised manuscript was not accepted.
Noise characteristics in Zenith Total Delay from homogeneously reprocessed GPS time series
Anna Klos1, Addisu Hunegnaw2, Felix Norman Teferle2, Kibrom Ebuy Abraha2, Furqan Ahmed2,a, and Janusz Bogusz1 1Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Warsaw, Poland
2University of Luxembourg, Geophysics Laboratory, Luxembourg
acurrent address: Center for Space Research, University of Texas at Austin, USA
Abstract. Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) time series, derived from the re-processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, provide valuable information for the evaluation of global atmospheric reanalysis products such as ERA-Interim. Identifying the correct noise characteristics in the ZTD time series is an important step to assess the "true" magnitude of ZTD trend uncertainties. The ZTD residual time series for 1995–2015 are generated from our homogeneously re-processed and homogenized GPS time series from over 700 globally distributed stations classified into five major climate zones. The annual peak of ZTD data ranges between 10 and 150 mm with the smallest values for the polar and Alpine zone. The amplitudes of daily curve fall between 0 and 12 mm with the greatest variations for the dry zone. The autoregressive process of fourth order plus white noise model were found to be optimal for ZTD series. The tropical zone has the largest amplitude of autoregressive noise (9.59 mm) and the greatest amplitudes of white noise (13.00 mm). All climate zones have similar median coefficients of AR(1) (0.80 ± 0.05) with a minimum for polar and Alpine, which has the highest coefficients of AR(2) (0.27 ± 0.01) and AR(3) (0.11 ± 0.01) and clearly different from the other zones considered. We show that 53 of 120 examined trends became insignificant, when the optimum noise model was employed, compared to 11 insignificant trends for pure white noise. The uncertainty of the ZTD trends may be underestimated by a factor of 3 to 12 compared to the white noise only assumption.

Citation: Klos, A., Hunegnaw, A., Teferle, F. N., Abraha, K. E., Ahmed, F., and Bogusz, J.: Noise characteristics in Zenith Total Delay from homogeneously reprocessed GPS time series, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,, 2016.
Anna Klos et al.


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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
GPS can remotely sense integrated atmospheric water vapour and in-doing so improve e.g. the accuracy of assimilated numerical weather models. Specially, GPS is well suited in the study of the atmospheric conditions since it is increasingly deployed ever widely around the globe. In this research, we used trend estimates of Zenith Total Delay series and provide a most recent picture of trend and their uncertainties which are used widely to interpret a change in climate.
GPS can remotely sense integrated atmospheric water vapour and in-doing so improve e.g. the...