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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
23 Feb 2017
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper was accepted for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) and is expected to appear here in due course.
Technical Note: Gas Phase Pesticide Measurement Using Iodide Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Trey Murschell, S. Ryan Fulgham, and Delphine K. Farmer Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University , Fort Collins, CO, 80523
Abstract. Volatilization and subsequent processing in the atmosphere is an important environmental pathway for the transport and chemical fate of pesticides. However, these processes remain a particularly poorly understood component of pesticide lifecycles due to analytical challenges. Most pesticide measurements require long (hours to days) sampling times coupled with off-line analysis, inhibiting observation of meteorologically driven events or investigation of rapid oxidation chemistry. Here, we present chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with iodide reagent ions as a fast and sensitive measurement of four current-use pesticides. These semi-volatile pesticides were calibrated with injections of solutions onto a filter and subsequently volatilized to generate gas phase analytes. Trifluralin and atrazine are detected as iodide-molecule adducts, while permethrin and metolachlor are detected as adducts between iodide and fragments of the parent analyte molecule. Limits of detection (1 second) are 0.37, 0.67, 0.56, and 1.1 µg/m3 for gas phase trifluralin, metolachlor, atrazine and permethrin, respectively. The sensitivities of trifluralin and metolachlor depend on relative humidity, changing as much as 70 % and 59 %, respectively, as relative humidity of the sample air varies from 0 to 80 %. This measurement approach is thus appropriate for laboratory experiments and potentially near-source field measurements.

Citation: Murschell, T., Fulgham, S. R., and Farmer, D. K.: Technical Note: Gas Phase Pesticide Measurement Using Iodide Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2016-421, in review, 2017.
Trey Murschell et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
RC1: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #2, 15 Mar 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
SC1: 'Author Response to Anonymous Referee #2', Trey Murschell, 19 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC1: 'Author's response', Delphine Farmer, 20 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
RC2: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #3, 03 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Author Response to Referee #3', Delphine Farmer, 21 Apr 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Trey Murschell et al.
Trey Murschell et al.


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Short summary
The impact of atmospheric chemistry on the fate and transport of pesticides is poorly understood. This paper describes a method for real-time measurements of four common use pesticides in the gas phase using chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
The impact of atmospheric chemistry on the fate and transport of pesticides is poorly...