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Atmospheric Measurement Techniques An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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doi:10.5194/amt-2016-338
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
01 Dec 2016
Review status
A revision of this discussion paper is under review for the journal Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT).
A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric-weighted-mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding
Changyong He1, Suqin Wu1, Xiaoming Wang1, Andong Hu1, and Kefei Zhang1,2 1SPACE Research Centre , S chool of Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
2School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, 221116, P.R. China
Abstract. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been regarded as a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV) nowadays. One of the most critical variables in PWV remote sensing using GPS technique is the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD). The conversion from ZTD to PWV requires a good knowledge of the atmospheric-weighted-mean temperature (Tm) over the station. Thus the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of both ZTD and Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT−D, was developed and validated using global reanalysis data from 2010 to 2014 provided by NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 data (NCEP2). The performance of GWMT−D, along with other three selected empirical Tm models, GTm−III, GWMT−IV and GTm_N, was assessed with reference Tm derived from different sources – the NCEP2, Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) data and radiosonde measurements. The results showed that the new GWMT−D model outperformed all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT−D model can provide an alternative Tm determination method in real-time/near real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing system.

Citation: He, C., Wu, S., Wang, X., Hu, A., and Zhang, K.: A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric-weighted-mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., doi:10.5194/amt-2016-338, in review, 2016.
Changyong He et al.
Changyong He et al.
Changyong He et al.

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Short summary
Atmospheric-weighted-mean temperature (Tm) is a key parameter in precipitable water vapour (PWV) remote sensing using GPS technique. This paper develops a new voxel-based empirical Tm model, which takes into consideration the lapse rate and diurnal variations of Tm. The theoretical RMS error of PWV resulting from the new model is generally less than 0.8 m over the globe. Therefore, it can be used as an alternative Tm determination method in the real-time GPS-based water vapour detection systems.
Atmospheric-weighted-mean temperature (Tm) is a key parameter in precipitable water vapour (PWV)...
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