Dry deposition of NaCl aerosols: theory and method for a modified leaf-washing technique
A. Reinap1, B. L. B. Wiman1, S. Gunnarsson1, and B. Svenningsson21Environmental Science & Technology Research Section, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Sweden 2Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Sweden
Received: 14 Jun 2010 – Accepted for review: 14 Aug 2010 – Discussion started: 25 Aug 2010
Abstract. Within the framework of aerosol deposition to vegetation we present a specially designed leaf wash-off method used in a wind-tunnel based study, where leaves of Quercus robur L. were exposed to NaCl aerosols. We summarise the principles and illustrate the method for two types of substances, the chloride ion and the sodium ion, and for two levels of aerosol exposure prior to leaf washing. On the average, in the low-exposure experiments (S1), the 1st (2nd) wash-off step provided 90% (96%) of the amount of Cl− on the leaves. In the high-exposure experiments (S2) the corresponding values were 96% and 99%. For sodium, the general dynamics resembles that of chloride, but the amounts washed off were, in both series, on the average below what would be expected if the equivalent ratio in the tunnel aerosol were to be preserved. Na+ showed adsorption and/or absorption at the leaf surfaces. The difference between the mean values of the amounts of chloride and of sodium washed off in S1 was not statistically significant, the mean Na+ to Cl− difference as a fraction of Cl− being minus 18%±27%; corresponding values for S2 were minus 16%±9%, however (p<0.05). In the latter case, 101±57 μequiv Na+ per m2 of leaf area were missing for the equivalent relationship 1:1 with Cl− to be met. Although uncertainties are thus large, this indicates the magnitude of the Na+-retention. The method is suitable not only for chloride, an inexpensive and easy-to-handle tracer, but also for sodium under exposure at high aerosol concentrations. Our findings will help design further studies of aerosol/forest interactions.
Reinap, A., Wiman, B. L. B., Gunnarsson, S., and Svenningsson, B.: Dry deposition of NaCl aerosols: theory and method for a modified leaf-washing technique, Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 3, 3851-3876, doi:10.5194/amtd-3-3851-2010, 2010.