Filling-in of far-red and near-Infrared solar lines by terrestrial and atmospheric effects: simulations and space-based observations from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT
1NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA
2Science Systems and Applications, Inc., 10210 Greenbelt, Rd., Ste 400, Lanham, MD, USA
3University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Joint Center for Environmental Technology (UMBC-JCET), Baltimore, MD, USA
4National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki, Japan
5Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki, Japan
6Sigma Space Corp., Lanham, MD USA
Abstract. Global mapping of terrestrial vegetation fluorescence from space has recently been accomplished with high spectral resolution (ν/Δν>35 000) measurements from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). These data are of interest because they can potentially provide global information on the functional status of vegetation including light use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling. Quantifying the impact of fluorescence on the O2-A band is important as this band is used for cloud- and aerosol-characterization for other trace-gas retrievals including CO2. Here, we explore whether fluorescence information can be derived from space using potentially lower-cost hyperspectral instrumentation, i.e., more than an order of magnitude less spectral resolution (ν/Δν ∼1600) than GOSAT, with a relatively simple algorithm. We simulate the filling-in, from various atmospheric and terrestrial effects, of one of the few wide and deep solar Fraunhofer lines in the long-wave tail of the fluorescence emission region, the calcium (Ca) II line near 866 nm. We then examine filling-in of this line using the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument. We develop and apply methodology to correct for various instrumental artifacts that produce false filling-in of solar lines in satellite radiance measurements. We then compare the derived additive near-InfraRed (NIR) signal at 866 nm, that fills in the Ca II line, with larger signals retrieved at 758 and 770 nm on the shoulders of the O2-A feature from GOSAT that are presumably due primarily to vegetation fluorescence. Finally, we compare temporal and spatial variations of GOSAT and SCIAMACHY additive signals with those of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Although the observed filling-in signal from SCIAMACHY is extremely weak at 866 nm, the spatial and temporal patterns of the derived additive signal are consistent with a vegetation source, chlorophyll-a fluorescence being a plausible candidate. We also show that filling-in occurs at 866 nm over some barren areas, possibly originating from luminescent minerals in rock and soil.